Volume 7, Issue 3 ( Journal of Clinical and Basic Research (JCBR) 2023)                   jcbr 2023, 7(3): 18-21 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

S Md S B, D. Murali K, Rahman Z U, S. Abdul K. A cross-sectional descriptive study of culture and urine dipstick methods for evaluation of urinary tract infection in children as a rapid screening tool. jcbr 2023; 7 (3) :18-21
URL: http://jcbr.goums.ac.ir/article-1-426-en.html
1- Department of Pediatrics, Government Medical College, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh-516002. India
2- Department of Pediatrics, Government Medical College, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh-516002. India , dr_zia_ur@yahoo.co.in
Abstract:   (225 Views)
Background: This study was designed to analyze the efficacy of a urine dipstick to detect urinary tract infection (UTI) in children and to correlate it with the urine culture.
Methods: A prospective laboratory descriptive study was conducted at the Department of Pediatrics at Government General Hospital, Kadapa, from February 2022 to September 2023. Urine samples from 250 children of 2 and 12 years of age with UTI symptoms were analyzed using urine dipstick and other clinical/laboratory variables.
Results: The urine culture was positive in 38.4% (n=96) of the children and negative in 61.6% (n=154) of the children using the dipstick. Urinary tract infection was more common among female than male children. It was common in children aged 6 to 10 years, accounting for 41.42%. The most prevalent organism isolated was Escherichia coli (24.8%), followed by Klebsiella (8.8%) and other Gram-negative bacilli (5.6%). Urine microscopy for pus cells revealed that 158 (63.2%) samples had no pus cells, 49 (19.6%) had up to 5 pus cells, 35 (14%) had 5-10 pus cells, and 8 (3.2%) had >10 pus cells. Pyuria was found in 56 of the 96 children in the culture-positive group, leukocyte esterase was positive in 123 cases, leukocyte esterase was negative in 88 cases, and the nitrite test was positive in 9 cases. However, the combined dipstick was positive in 121 (48.4%) of all cases. Among the culture-positive group, the combined dipstick was positive in 39 cases and negative in 3 cases. Among the culture-negative cases, the combined dipstick was positive in 28 cases and negative in 126 cases. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of leucocyte esterase and nitrite were 65%, 80%, 69%, and 78% for diagnosing UTI in our study, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of the combined dipstick compared with urine culture were 95.5%, 80%, 74.9%, and 95.9%, respectively.
Conclusion: The combined dipstick + nitrite and leukocyte esterase show higher sensitivity and specificity, making it superior to leukocyte esterase or nitrite alone in diagnosing UTI. When compared to the urine culture, the combined dipstick has higher sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. Therefore, the combined dipstick can be used consistently as a quick screening tool for UTIs when culture facilities are not available.
Full-Text [PDF 354 kb]   (87 Downloads)    
Article Type: Research | Subject: Pediatrics

1. Geerlings SE. Clinical presentations and epidemiology of urinary tract infections. Microbiol Spectr. 2016;4(5):4-5. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
2. Foxman B. Epidemiology of urinary tract infections: incidence, morbidity, and economic costs. Am J Med. 2002;113(1):5s-13. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
3. Tullus K, Shaikh N. Urinary tract infections in children. The Lancet. 2020;395(10237):1659-68. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
4. Sihra N, Goodman A, Zakri R, Sahai A, Malde S. Nonantibiotic prevention and management of recurrent urinary tract infection. Nat Rev Urol. 2018;15(12):750-76. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
5. Najeeb S, Munir T, Rehman S, Hafiz A, Gilani M, Latif M. Comparison of urine dipstick test with conventional urine culture in diagnosis of urinary tract infection. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2015;25(2):108-10. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
6. Molyneux EM, Robson WJ. A dipstick test for urinary tract infections. J Accid Emerg Med. 1995;12(3):191-3. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
7. Hellström A, Hanson E, Hansson S, Hjälmås K, Jodal U. Association between urinary symptoms at 7 years old and previous urinary tract infection. Arch Dis Child. 1991;66(2):232-4. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
8. Shaw KN, Gorelick MH. Urinary Tract Infection in pediatric patient. Pediatr Clin North Am. 1999;46(6):1111-24. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
9. Harsh KM, Hetal NJ, Bhairavi MS. Urinary tract infection in children: clinical aspects and utility of urine dipstick test. Int J Contemp Pediatr. 2017;4(3):790-5. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [Google Scholar]
10. Glissmeyer EW, Korgenski EK, Wilkes J, Schunk JE, Sheng X, Blaschke AJ, et al. Dipstick screening for urinary tract infection in febrile infants. Pediatrics. 2014;133(5):e1121-7. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
11. Bagga R, Girotra A. Urinary Dipsticks: Efficacy as Predictor of Urinary Tract Infections. J Bacteriol Mycol. 2016;2(1):24-6. https://doi.org/10.15406/jbmoa.2015.02.00015 [View at Publisher] [DOI] [Google Scholar]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Journal of Clinical and Basic Research

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0).