Volume 7, Issue 4 (Journal of Clinical and Basic Research (JCBR) 2023)                   jcbr 2023, 7(4): 5-9 | Back to browse issues page

Ethics code: IR.GOUMS.REC.1402.004

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Jahani G, Hojjati N. The relationship between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines, abnormal uterine bleeding, and hormonal disorders in women of reproductive age: one-center cross-sectional results. jcbr 2023; 7 (4) :5-9
URL: http://jcbr.goums.ac.ir/article-1-414-en.html
1- Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran
2- Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran , Dr.nhojjati@gmail.com
Abstract:   (234 Views)
Background: Changes in menstrual bleeding in the context of hormonal changes may explain why reports on this phenomenon were published globally during the COVID-19 vaccination period. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between the injection of COVID-19 vaccines, abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), and hormonal disorders in women of reproductive age who were referred to Sayad Shirazi Hospital in Gorgan (Iran) in 2023.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on patients referred to the Gynecology Center of Sayad Shirazi Hospital (Gorgan). The census method was used for collecting data, and the data of 114 women of reproductive age information who had received at least 1 dose of the COVID-19 vaccine were collected by a questionnaire and analysis of requested tests and their registration and analyzed in SPSS v. 16. Chi-square, independent t-test, and analysis of variance were used, and the significance level was <0.05.
Results: In this study, 114 women with an average age of 41.12 years met the inclusion criteria; 27 women had previous abnormal bleeding patterns, which had a clear change in the bleeding process, and the rest had a regular cycle with AUB. Three types of vaccines were used by the women; AstraZeneca had the most side effects, followed by Sinopharm. The participants showed abnormal bleeding during the first year, although in most women, it had started in the first 6 months. COVID-19 vaccination showed a significant relationship with the change in the bleeding process (P=049). Coagulation disorders and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) of more than 35 did not show a significant relationship between disorders, specific hormones, and AUB (P=0.269). However, the presence of hormonal disorders with AUB, despite increased PTT, had a significant relationship with AUB (P=0.011).
Conclusion: The results indicated a significant relationship between the injection of vaccines and the occurrence of AUB regardless of hormonal disorders and coagulation disorders, which were more likely to occur in a wider time frame (6 months or more). The results also demonstrated that these side effects were expected among people who receive the vaccine; for health care workers, on the other hand, trying to correct and prevent more side effects. Although different types of vaccines can cause different effects, their long-term effects should be considered, especially in women with the possibility of hormonal changes and abnormal bleeding, and the use of vaccines with fewer complications is recommended.

Full-Text [PDF 578 kb]   (37 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (8 Views)  
Article Type: Research | Subject: Obstetrics and Gynecology

1. Han Y, Yang H. The transmission and diagnosis of 2019 novel coronavirus infection disease (COVID‐ 19): A Chinese perspective. J Med Virol. 2020;92(6):639-44. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
2. COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic. Worldometer; 2023. [View at Publisher]
3. Chen Y, Peng H, Wang L, Zhao Y, Zeng L, Gao H, et al. Infants born to mothers with a new coronavirus (COVID-19). Front Pediatr. 2020;8:104. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
4. Nguyen B, Tosti A. Alopecia in patients with COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAAD Int. 2022;7:67-77. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
5. Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet. 2020;395(10223):507-13. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
6. Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, Liang WH, Ou CQ, He JX, et al. Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(18):1708-20. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
7. WHO. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Vaccines and vaccine safety.2023. [View at Publisher]
8. Li K, Chen G, Hou H, Liao Q, Chen J, Bai H, et al. Analysis of sex hormones and menstruation in COVID-19 women of child-bearing age. Reprod Biomed Online. 2021;42(1):260-7. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
9. Fathizadeh H, Afshar S, Masoudi MR, Gholizadeh P, Asgharzadeh M, Ganbarov K, et al. SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) vaccines structure, mechanisms and effectiveness: a review. Int J Biol Macromol. 2021:188:740-50. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
10. Hernandez AF, Calina D, Poulas K, Docea AO, Tsatsakis AM. Safety of COVID19 vaccines administered in the EU: should we be concerned? Toxicol Rep. 2021;8:871-9. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
11. Ostovan VR, Foroughi R, Rostami M, Almasi-Dooghaee M, Esmaili M, Bidaki AA, et al., Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis associated with COVID-19: a case series and literature review. J Neurol. 2021;268(10):3549-60. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
12. See I, Su JR, Lale A, Woo EJ, Guh AY, Shimabukuro TT, et al., US case reports of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis with thrombocytopenia after Ad26. COV2.S vaccination, March 2 to April 21, 2021. JAMA. 2021;325(24):2448-56. [View at Publisher] [Google Scholar] [DOI] [PMID] [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
13. Laganà AS, Veronesi G, Ghezzi F, Ferrario MM, Cromi A, Bizzarri M, et al. Evaluation of menstrual irregularities after COVID-19 vaccination: Results of the MECOVAC survey. Open Med (Wars). 2022;17(1):475-84. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
14. 14) Male V. Menstrual changes after covid-19 vaccination. BMJ. 2021;374:n2211. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
15. Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Item of interest: NIH funds studies to assess potential effects of COVID-19 vaccination on menstruation. 2021. [View at Publisher] [Google Scholar]
16. Munro MG, Critchley HOD, Fraser IS. The FIGO classification of causes of abnormal uterine bleeding: Malcolm G. Munro, Hilary O.D. Crithcley, Ian S. Fraser, for the FIGO Working Group on Menstrual Disorders. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2011;113(1):1-2. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
17. Munro MG, Critchley HOD, Broder MS, Fraser IS; FIGO Working Group on Menstrual Disorders. FIGO classification system (PALM-COEIN) for causes of abnormal uterine bleeding in nongravid women of reproductive age. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2011;113(1):3-13. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
18. Fraser IS, Critchley HO, Broder M, Munro MG. The FIGO recommendations on terminologies and definitions for normal and abnormal uterine bleeding. Semin Reprod Med. 2011;29(5):383-90. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
19. Jones K, Sung S. Anovulatory Bleeding. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023. [View at Publisher] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
20. Han X, Xu P, Ye Q. Analysis of COVID-19 vaccines: Types, thoughts, and application. J Clin Lab Anal. 2021;35(9):e23937. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
21. Shapley M, Jordan K, Croft PR. An epidemiological survey of symptoms of menstrual loss in the community. Br J Gen Pract. 2004;54(502):359-63. [View at Publisher] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
22. Edelman A, Boniface ER, Benhar E, Han L, Matteson KA, Favaro C, et al. Association Between Menstrual Cycle Length and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Vaccination: A U.S. Cohort. Obstet Gynecol. 2022;139(4):481-9. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
23. Quejada LR, Wills MFT, Martínez-Ávila MC, Patiño-Aldana AF. Menstrual cycle disturbances after COVID-19 vaccination Luisa Rodríguez Quejada et al. Womens Health (Lond). 2022;18:17455057221109375. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
24. Nazir M, Asghar S, Rathore MA, Shahzad A, Shahid A, Ashraf Khan A, et al. Menstrual abnormalities after COVID-19 vaccines: A systematic review. Vacunas. 2022;23:S77-87. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
25. Lebar V, Laganà AS, Chiantera V, Kunič T, Lukanović D. The Effect of COVID-19 on the Menstrual Cycle: A Systematic Review. J Clin Med. 2022;11(13):3800. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
26. Muhaidat N, Alshrouf MA, Azzam MI, Karam AM, Al-Nazer MW, Al-Ani A. Menstrual Symptoms After COVID-19 Vaccine: A Cross-Sectional Investigation in the MENA Region Nadia Muhaidat et al. Int J Womens Health. 2022;14:395-404. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
27. Sarfraz A, Sarfraz Z, Sarfraz M, Nadeem Z, Felix M, Cherrez-Ojeda I. Menstrual irregularities following COVID-19 vaccination: A global cross-sectional survey. Ann Med Surg (Lond). 2022;81:104220. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
28. Asgari Z, Hosseini R, Azadehrah M, Azadehrah M. Evaluation of the compatibility of ultrasound and hysteroscopic findings and histopathological results in women with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB). Pakistan journal of Medical and Health Sciences.2021;15(1):633-40. [View at Publisher] [Google Scholar]
29. Jordahl- Iafrato MA, Reed H, Hadley SK, Kolman KB. A systematic approach to chronic abnormal uterine bleeding. J Fam Pract. 2019;68(2):82;84;86;92. [View at Publisher] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
30. Eyada MMK, Abd-Elhamid AAS, Elboghdady RAF, Gadallah AM, Azab M. Assessment of Female Sexual Dysfunction in Patients with Premenopausal Female Pattern Hair Loss. Advances in Sexual Medicine.2020;10(3):86-103. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [Google Scholar]
31. Michael Price T. Abnormal (Dysfunctional) Uterine Bleeding. Medscape. 2022. [View at Publisher]
32. Kanagasabai PS, Filoche S, Grainger R, Henry C, Hay-Smith J. Interventions to improve access to care for abnormal uterine bleeding: A systematic scoping review. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 2023;160(1):38-48. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Journal of Clinical and Basic Research

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0).