Volume 5, Issue 3 ( Journal of Clinical and Basic Research (JCBR) 2021)                   jcbr 2021, 5(3): 9-20 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Hajishah H, Salehi S A, Amini M. Investigating Olfactory Bulb Volume Reduction as a Potential Biomarker for Some Neuropsychiatric Disorders: A Narrative Review. jcbr. 2021; 5 (3) :9-20
URL: http://jcbr.goums.ac.ir/article-1-323-en.html
1- Student Research Committee, Tehran Medical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. , hajishah.hamed@gmail.com
2- Student Research Committee, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
3- Student Research Committee, Medical School, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran.
Abstract:   (966 Views)
The Olfactory bulb is a crucial structure involved in olfaction that is located in the ventral anterior of the forebrain. Due to physiological and anatomical connection between olfactory and emotion processing networks, olfactory dysfunction is seen in some psychiatric disorders. Strong evidences suggest that olfactory bulb volume can mirror olfactory system function. Due to this correlation, there has been an interest to investigate the possible correlation between reduction of olfactory bulb volume and some neuropsychiatric disorders. Nowadays, mental disorders are mostly diagnosed according to behavioural symptoms. Gradual progression of mental disorders and delayed onset of behavioral symptoms have increased the importance of finding objective biomarkers. Such biomarkers can improve treatment outcome, accuracy of diagnosis, and prognosis. It is hypothesized that the reduction of olfactory bulb volume could be a biomarker for some disorders. In this article, we reviewed studies on the association of olfactory bulb volume with depression, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, migraine, and multiple sclerosis.
Full-Text [PDF 677 kb]   (244 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (144 Views)  
Article Type: Review | Subject: Neuroscience
Received: 2021/08/7 | Accepted: 2021/09/14 | Published: 2021/09/21

1. Shipley M, Reyes P. Anatomy of the Human Olfactory Bulb and Central Olfactory Pathways. In: Laing DG, Doty RL, Breipohl W, editors. The Human Sense of Smell. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg; 1991. p. 29-60. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [Google Scholar]
2. Hummel T, Smitka M, Puschmann S, Gerber JC, Schaal B, Buschhüter D. Correlation between olfactory bulb volume and olfactory function in children and adolescents. Experimental Brain Research. 2011;214(2):285. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
3. Soudry Y, Lemogne C, Malinvaud D, Consoli SM, Bonfils P. Olfactory system and emotion: Common substrates. European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases. 2011;128(1):18-23. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
4. Scott JW, Wellis DP, Riggott MJ, Buonviso N. Functional organization of the main olfactory bulb. Microscopy Research and Technique. 1993;24(2):142-56. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
5. Mueller A, Rodewald A, Reden J, Gerber J, von Kummer R, Hummel T. Reduced olfactory bulb volume in post-traumatic and post-infectious olfactory dysfunction. Neuroreport. 2005;16(5):475-8. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
6. Rombaux P, Mouraux A, Bertrand B, Nicolas G, Duprez T, Hummel T. Retronasal and orthonasal olfactory function in relation to olfactory bulb volume in patients with posttraumatic loss of smell. Laryngoscope. 2006;116(6):901-5. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
7. Rombaux P, Mouraux A, Bertrand B, Nicolas G, Duprez T, Hummel T. Olfactory function and olfactory bulb volume in patients with postinfectious olfactory loss. Laryngoscope. 2006;116(3):436-9. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
8. Yousem DM, Geckle RJ, Bilker WB, Kroger H, Doty RL. Posttraumatic smell loss: relationship of psychophysical tests and volumes of the olfactory bulbs and tracts and the temporal lobes. Acad Radiol. 1999;6(5):264-72. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
9. Yousem DM, Geckle RJ, Bilker WB, McKeown DA, Doty RL. Posttraumatic olfactory dysfunction: MR and clinical evaluation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1996;17(6):1171-9. [View at Publisher] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
10. Gudziol V, Buschhüter D, Abolmaali N, Gerber J, Rombaux P, Hummel T. Increasing olfactory bulb volume due to treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis--a longitudinal study. Brain. 2009;132(Pt 11):3096-101. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
11. Lötsch J, Schaeffeler E, Mittelbronn M, Winter S, Gudziol V, Schwarzacher SW, et al. Functional genomics suggest neurogenesis in the adult human olfactory bulb. Brain Struct Funct. 2014;219(6):1991-2000. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
12. Bergmann O, Liebl J, Bernard S, Alkass K, Yeung MS, Steier P, et al. The age of olfactory bulb neurons in humans. Neuron. 2012;74(4):634-9. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
13. Curtis MA, Kam M, Faull RL. Neurogenesis in humans. Eur J Neurosci. 2011;33(6):1170-4. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
14. Forbes WB. Aging-related morphological changes in the main olfactory bulb of the fischer 344 rat. Neurobiology of Aging. 1984;5(2):93-9. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
15. Dluzen DE. Age-related changes in monoamines within the olfactory bulbs of the Fischer 344 male rat. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development. 1996;91(1):37-45. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
16. Mirich JM, Williams NC, Berlau DJ, Brunjes PC. Comparative study of aging in the mouse olfactory bulb. J Comp Neurol. 2002;454(4):361-72. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
17. Whiteford HA, Degenhardt L, Rehm J, Baxter AJ, Ferrari AJ, Erskine HE, et al. Global burden of disease attributable to mental and substance use disorders: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2013;382(9904):1575-86. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
18. Murray CJ, Atkinson C, Bhalla K, Birbeck G, Burstein R, Chou D, et al. The state of US health, 1990-2010: burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors. Jama. 2013;310(6):591-608. [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
19. García-Gutiérrez MS, Navarrete F, Sala F, Gasparyan A, Austrich-Olivares A, Manzanares J. Biomarkers in Psychiatry: Concept, Definition, Types and Relevance to the Clinical Reality. Front Psychiatry. 2020;11:432. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
20. Biomarkers and surrogate endpoints: preferred definitions and conceptual framework. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2001;69(3):89-95. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
21. Lener MS, Iosifescu DV. In pursuit of neuroimaging biomarkers to guide treatment selection in major depressive disorder: a review of the literature. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2015;1344:50-65. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
22. Fu CH, Costafreda SG. Neuroimaging-based biomarkers in psychiatry: clinical opportunities of a paradigm shift. Can J Psychiatry. 2013;58(9):499-508. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
23. Gottfried JA. Smell: central nervous processing. Adv Otorhinolaryngol. 2006;63:44-69. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
24. LeDoux JE. Emotion circuits in the brain. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2000;23:155-84. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
25. Atanasova B, Graux J, El Hage W, Hommet C, Camus V, Belzung C. Olfaction: a potential cognitive marker of psychiatric disorders. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2008;32(7):1315-25. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
26. Buschhüter D, Smitka M, Puschmann S, Gerber JC, Witt M, Abolmaali ND, et al. Correlation between olfactory bulb volume and olfactory function. Neuroimage. 2008;42(2):498-502. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
27. Rombaux P, Duprez T, Hummel T. Olfactory bulb volume in the clinical assessment of olfactory dysfunction. Rhinology. 2009;47(1):3-9. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
28. Haehner A, Rodewald A, Gerber JC, Hummel T. Correlation of olfactory function with changes in the volume of the human olfactory bulb. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2008;134(6):621-4. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
29. Murray CJ, Lopez AD. Evidence-based health policy--lessons from the Global Burden of Disease Study. Science. 1996;274(5288):740-3. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
30. Andrade L, Caraveo-Anduaga JJ, Berglund P, Bijl RV, De Graaf R, Vollebergh W, et al. The epidemiology of major depressive episodes: results from the International Consortium of Psychiatric Epidemiology (ICPE) Surveys. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2003;12(1):3-21. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
31. Ormel J, Kessler RC, Schoevers R. Depression: more treatment but no drop in prevalence: how effective is treatment? And can we do better? Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2019;32(4):348-54. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
32. Vennemann MM, Hummel T, Berger K. The association between smoking and smell and taste impairment in the general population. J Neurol. 2008;255(8):1121-6. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
33. Negoias S, Croy I, Gerber J, Puschmann S, Petrowski K, Joraschky P, et al. Reduced olfactory bulb volume and olfactory sensitivity in patients with acute major depression. Neuroscience. 2010;169(1):415-21. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
34. Negoias S, Hummel T, Symmank A, Schellong J, Joraschky P, Croy I. Olfactory bulb volume predicts therapeutic outcome in major depression disorder. Brain Imaging Behav. 2016;10(2):367-72. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
35. Rottstädt F, Han P, Weidner K, Schellong J, Wolff-Stephan S, Strauß T, et al. Reduced olfactory bulb volume in depression-A structural moderator analysis. Hum Brain Mapp. 2018;39(6):2573-82. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
36. Rottstaedt F, Weidner K, Strauß T, Schellong J, Kitzler H, Wolff-Stephan S, et al. Size matters - The olfactory bulb as a marker for depression. J Affect Disord. 2018;229:193-8. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
37. Ozdemir N, Atcı I, Bag S, Yilmaz H, Karagoz Y, Yilmaz A. Magnetic resonance imaging study; does the olfactory bulb volume change in major depression? Romanian Neurosurgery. 2016;30. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [Google Scholar]
38. Gül A, Sari K, Özkırış M, Aydin R, Simsek G, Serin H, et al. Correlation Between Olfactory Bulb Volume and Chronic Depression: A Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study. Bulletin of Clinical Psychopharmacology. 2015;25. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [Google Scholar]
39. Asal N, Bayar Muluk N, Inal M, Şahan MH, Doğan A, Buturak SV. Olfactory bulbus volume and olfactory sulcus depth in psychotic patients and patients with anxiety disorder/depression. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2018;275(12):3017-24. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
40. Lotankar S, Prabhavalkar KS, Bhatt LK. Biomarkers for Parkinson's Disease: Recent Advancement. Neurosci Bull. 2017;33(5):585-97. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
41. Doty RL. Olfaction in Parkinson's disease and related disorders. Neurobiol Dis. 2012;46(3):527-52. [DOI] [PubMed]
42. Ross GW, Petrovitch H, Abbott RD, Tanner CM, Popper J, Masaki K, et al. Association of olfactory dysfunction with risk for future Parkinson's disease. Ann Neurol. 2008;63(2):167-73. [DOI] [PubMed]
43. Monderer R, Thorpy M. Sleep disorders and daytime sleepiness in Parkinson's disease. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2009;9(2):173-80. [DOI] [PubMed]
44. Paschen L, Schmidt N, Wolff S, Cnyrim C, van Eimeren T, Zeuner KE, et al. The olfactory bulb volume in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Eur J Neurol. 2015;22(7):1068-73. [DOI] [PubMed]
45. Brodoehl S, Klingner C, Volk GF, Bitter T, Witte OW, Redecker C. Decreased olfactory bulb volume in idiopathic Parkinson's disease detected by 3.0-tesla magnetic resonance imaging. Mov Disord. 2012;27(8):1019-25. [DOI] [PubMed]
46. Tremblay C, Mei J, Frasnelli J. Olfactory bulb surroundings can help to distinguish Parkinson's disease from non-parkinsonian olfactory dysfunction. Neuroimage Clin. 2020;28:102457. [DOI] [PubMed]
47. Chen S, Tan HY, Wu ZH, Sun CP, He JX, Li XC, et al. Imaging of olfactory bulb and gray matter volumes in brain areas associated with olfactory function in patients with Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy. Eur J Radiol. 2014;83(3):564-70. [DOI] [PubMed]
48. Hakyemez HA, Veyseller B, Ozer F, Ozben S, Bayraktar GI, Gurbuz D, et al. Relationship of olfactory function with olfactory bulbus volume, disease duration and Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale scores in patients with early stage of idiopathic Parkinson's disease. J Clin Neurosci. 2013;20(10):1469-70. [DOI] [PubMed]
49. Altinayar S, Oner S, Can S, Kizilay A, Kamisli S, Sarac K. Olfactory disfunction and its relation olfactory bulb volume in Parkinson's disease. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2014;18(23):3659-64. [PubMed]
50. Wang J, You H, Liu JF, Ni DF, Zhang ZX, Guan J. Association of olfactory bulb volume and olfactory sulcus depth with olfactory function in patients with Parkinson disease. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2011;32(4):677-81. [DOI] [PubMed]
51. Hang W, Liu G, Han T, Zhang P, Zhang J. [Olfactory function in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2015;50(1):20-4. [PubMed]
52. Mueser KT, McGurk SR. Schizophrenia. Lancet. 2004;363(9426):2063-72. [DOI] [PubMed]
53. Harrison PJ, Weinberger DR. Schizophrenia genes, gene expression, and neuropathology: on the matter of their convergence. Molecular Psychiatry. 2005;10(1):40-68. [DOI] [PubMed]
54. Castle DJ, Murray RM. The neurodevelopmental basis of sex differences in schizophrenia. Psychol Med. 1991;21(3):565-75. [DOI] [PubMed]
55. Haijma SV, Van Haren N, Cahn W, Koolschijn PC, Hulshoff Pol HE, Kahn RS. Brain volumes in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis in over 18 000 subjects. Schizophr Bull. 2013;39(5):1129-38. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
56. Nguyen AD, Pelavin PE, Shenton ME, Chilakamarri P, McCarley RW, Nestor PG, et al. Olfactory sulcal depth and olfactory bulb volume in patients with schizophrenia: an MRI study. Brain Imaging Behav. 2011;5(4):252-61. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
57. Turetsky BI, Moberg PJ, Yousem DM, Doty RL, Arnold SE, Gur RE. Reduced olfactory bulb volume in patients with schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2000;157(5):828-30. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
58. Turetsky BI, Moberg PJ, Arnold SE, Doty RL, Gur RE. Low olfactory bulb volume in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160(4):703-8. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
59. Adav SS, Sze SK. Insight of brain degenerative protein modifications in the pathology of neurodegeneration and dementia by proteomic profiling. Mol Brain. 2016;9(1):92. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
60. Leandro P, Gomes CM. Protein misfolding in conformational disorders: rescue of folding defects and chemical chaperoning. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008;8(9):901-11. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
61. De-Paula VJ, Radanovic M, Diniz BS, Forlenza OV. Alzheimer's Disease. In: Harris JR, editor. Protein Aggregation and Fibrillogenesis in Cerebral and Systemic Amyloid Disease. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012. p. 329-52. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
62. Qiu C, De Ronchi D, Fratiglioni L. The epidemiology of the dementias: an update. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2007;20(4):380-5. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
63. Jellinger KA, Attems J. Prevalence and impact of cerebrovascular pathology in Alzheimer's disease and parkinsonism. Acta Neurol Scand. 2006;114(1):38-46. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
64. ter Laak HJ, Renkawek K, van Workum FP. The olfactory bulb in Alzheimer disease: a morphologic study of neuron loss, tangles, and senile plaques in relation to olfaction. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 1994;8(1):38-48. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
65. Thomann PA, Dos Santos V, Toro P, Schönknecht P, Essig M, Schröder J. Reduced olfactory bulb and tract volume in early Alzheimer's disease--a MRI study. Neurobiol Aging. 2009;30(5):838-41. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
66. Thomann PA, Dos Santos V, Seidl U, Toro P, Essig M, Schröder J. MRI-derived atrophy of the olfactory bulb and tract in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2009;17(1):213-21. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
67. Servello A, Fioretti A, Gualdi G, Di Biasi C, Pittalis A, Sollaku S, et al. Olfactory Dysfunction, Olfactory Bulb Volume and Alzheimer's Disease: Is There a Correlation? A Pilot Study1. J Alzheimers Dis. 2015;48(2):395-402. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
68. Goldenberg MM. Multiple sclerosis review. P T. 2012;37(3):175-84. [View at Publisher] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
69. Leray E, Moreau T, Fromont A, Edan G. Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2016;172(1):3-13. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
70. Harris VK, Sadiq SA. Disease biomarkers in multiple sclerosis: potential for use in therapeutic decision making. Mol Diagn Ther. 2009;13(4):225-44. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
71. Goektas O, Schmidt F, Bohner G, Erb K, Ludemann L, Dahlslett B, et al. Olfactory bulb volume and olfactory function in patients with multiple sclerosis. Rhinology. 2011;49(2):221-6. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
72. Yaldizli Ö, Penner IK, Yonekawa T, Naegelin Y, Kuhle J, Pardini M, et al. The association between olfactory bulb volume, cognitive dysfunction, physical disability and depression in multiple sclerosis. Eur J Neurol. 2016;23(3):510-9. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
73. Silberstein SD. Migraine. Lancet. 2004;363(9406):381-91. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
74. Aktürk T, Tanık N, Serin H, Saçmacı H, İnan LE. Olfactory bulb atrophy in migraine patients. Neurol Sci. 2019;40(1):127-32. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
75. Doğan A, Bayar Muluk N, Şahan MH, Asal N, Inal M, Ergün U. Olfactory bulbus volume and olfactory sulcus depth in migraine patients: an MRI evaluation. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2018;275(8):2005-11. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2022 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Journal of Clinical and Basic Research

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0).