Volume 1, Issue 2 ((Journal of Clinical and Basic Research (JCBR) 2017)                   jcbr 2017, 1(2): 44-49 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Ahmadi A R, Ghaemi E, Saifi A, Mansourian H R, Mansourian A R. Nausea and Vomiting Due to Transient Hyperthyroidism in the First Trimester of Pregnancy: A Review. jcbr 2017; 1 (2) :44-49
URL: http://jcbr.goums.ac.ir/article-1-59-en.html
Abstract:   (4408 Views)

Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a glycoprotein hormone produced by the placenta, which has a similar structure to thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).Due to this similarity, hCG could exhibit TSH-like activity and stimulate thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones, particularly thyroxine (T4).This condition is often seen at end of the first trimester of pregnancy (weeks 10-12). In these cases, maternal serum TSH concentration is reduced and T4 level is elevated, causing overt hyperthyroidism that could lead to thyrotoxicosis if remain untreated. Pregnant women with hyperemesisgravidarum experience nausea and vomiting. These subjects seem to have elevated levels of serum hCG, particularly at the end of the first trimester when it reaches its peak, eventually leading to hyperthyroidism. There are some reports suggesting that hyperemesis gravidarum might be due to hyperthyroidism associated with elevated hCG in pregnant women at weeks10-12 of pregnancy.

Full-Text [PDF 284 kb]   (2956 Downloads)    
Article Type: Research |

1. Messinis IE, Messini CI, Dafopoulos K. The role of gonadotropins in the follicular phase. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2010; 1205: 5–11. [DOI:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05660.x]
2. Cole LA. Biological functions of hCG and hCG-related molecules. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology. 2010;8: 102–115. [DOI:10.1186/1477-7827-8-102]
3. Filicori M, Fazleabas AT, Huhtaniemi I, Light P,Rao CV,Tesarik J, Zygmunt M. Novel concepts of human chorionic gonadotropin: Reproductive system interactions and potential in the management of infertility. Fertility and Sterility. 2005; 84: 275–284. [DOI:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2005.02.033]
4. Weissman A, Lurie S, Zalel Y, Goldchmit R, Shoham Z. Human chorionic gonadotropin: Pharmacokinetics of subcutaneous administration. Gynecological Endocrinology. 1996;10: 273–276. [DOI:10.3109/09513599609012319]
5. Cole LA. New discoveries on the bioogy and detection of human chorionic gonadotropin. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology. 2009;7- 8
6. Filicori, M,Cognini G.E, Gambertini E,Parmegiani L,Troilo E, Roset B. Efficacy of low-dose human chorionic gonadotropin alone to complete controlled ovarian stimulation. Fertility and Sterility. 2005;84: 394–401. [DOI:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2005.02.036]
7. Filicori M, Cognini GE, Taraborrelli S,Spettoli D, Ciampaglia W, de Fatis CT. Low-dose human chorionic gonadotropin therapy can improve sensitivity to exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone in patients with secondary amenorrhea. Fertility and Sterility. 1999; 72: 1118–1120. [DOI:10.1016/S0015-0282(99)00426-4]
8. Lopata A, Hay DL. The potential of early human embryos to form blastocys hatch from their zona and secrete hcg in culture. Human Reproduction. 1989; 4: 87–94. [DOI:10.1093/humrep/4.suppl_1.87]
9. Tsampalas M, Gridelet V, Berndt S,Foidart J.M,Geenen V, Perrier d\'Hauterive S. Human chorionic gonadotropin: A hormone with immunological and angiogenic properties. Journal of Reproductive Immunology. 2010; 85:93–98. [DOI:10.1016/j.jri.2009.11.008]
10. Krysiak R, Okopień B, Herman ZS. [Hyperthyroidism in pregnancy]. Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski. 2006; 21(126):579-84.
11. Rodien P, Jordan N, Lefèvre A, Royer J, Vasseur C, Savagner F, Bourdelot A, Rohmer V. HumAbnormal stimulation of the thyrotrophin receptor during gestation. Reproduction Update. 2004; 10(2):95-105. [DOI:10.1093/humupd/dmh008]
12. Ardawi MS, Nasrat HA, Rouzi AA, Mustafa BE Are women at an increased risk of gestational thyrotoxicosis?. Saudi Medical Journal. 2002;23(6):651-7.
13. Nelson-Piercy C. Nelson-Piercy C. Treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. When should it be treated and what can be safely taken?. Drug Safety. 1998;19(2): 155-64.
14. Leylek OA, Cetin A, Toyaksi M, Erselcan THyperthyroidism in hyperemesis gravidarum. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. 1996; 55(1):33-7. [DOI:10.1016/0020-7292(96)02737-3]
15. Appierto U, Subrizi DA, Minozzi M, Unfer V Nausea, vomiting and thyroid function before and after induced abortion in normal pregnancy. Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1996;23(1):18-20.
16. Becks GP, Burrow GN Thyroid disease and pregnancy. Medical Clinics of North America. 1991;75(1): 121-50. [DOI:10.1016/S0025-7125(16)30475-8]
17. Mori M, Amino N, Tamaki H, Miyai K, Tanizawa O.Morning sickness and thyroid function in normal pregnancy. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 1988;72(3 Pt 1):355-9
18. Mansourian AR. A review on hyperthyroidism: Thyrotoxicosis under surveillance. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 2010; 13: 1066-1076. [DOI:10.3923/pjbs.2010.1066.1076]
19. Mansourian AR.Thyroid function tests during first-trimester of pregnancy: A review of literature. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 2010; 10: 2166-2177. [DOI:10.3923/pjbs.2007.2166.2171]
20. Mansourian AR. A review on post-puberty Hypothyroidism: A glance at myxedema. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 2010,13:866-876. [DOI:10.3923/pjbs.2010.866.876]
21. Mansourian AR. A review on the metabolic disorders of iodine deficiency. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 2011; 14: 412-424. [DOI:10.3923/pjbs.2011.412.424]
22. Mansourian AR. Female reproduction physiology adversely manipulated by thyroid disorders: A review of literature. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 2013;16: 112-120. [DOI:10.3923/pjbs.2013.112.120]
23. Krassas GE, Poppe K, Glinoer D. Thyroid function and human reproductive health. Endocrine Reviews. 2010; 31:702-55. [DOI:10.1210/er.2009-0041]
24. Davis LE, Lucas MJ, Hankins GD, Roark ML, Cunningham FG. Thyrotoxicosis complicating pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology. 1989; 160:63-70. [DOI:10.1016/0002-9378(89)90088-4]
25. Haddow JE, Craig WY, Neveux LM, Haddow HR, Palomaki GE, Lambert-Messerlian G, et al. Implications of High Free Thyroxine (FT4) concentrations in euthyroid pregnancies: the FaSTER trial. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2014; 99:20-38. [DOI:10.1210/jc.2014-1053]
26. Lambert-Messerlian G, McClain M, Haddow JE, Palomaki GE, Canick JA, Cleary-Goldman J, et al. First- and second-trimester thyroid hormone reference data in pregnant women: a FaSTER (First- and Second-Trimester Evaluation of Risk for aneuploidy) Research Consortium study. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology. 2008; 199:62.e1. [DOI:10.1016/j.ajog.2007.12.003]
27. Salvi M, How J. Pregnancy and autoimmune thyroid disease. Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America.1987; 16:431-444.
28. Kung AW, Lau KS, Kohn LD. Epitope mapping of tsh receptor-blocking antibodies in Graves\' disease that appear during pregnancy. Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. 2001; 86:36-47.
29. Rodien P, Brémont C, Sanson ML, Parma J, Van Sande J, Costagliola S, et al. Familial gestational hyperthyroidism caused by a mutant thyrotropin receptor hypersensitive to human chorionic gonadotropin. New England Journal of Medicine. 1998; 339:1823-6. [DOI:10.1056/NEJM199812173392505]
30. Boelig RC, Barton SJ, Saccone G, Kelly AJ, Edwards SJ, Berghella V. Interventions for treating hyperemesis gravidarum: A Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine. 2017; 14:1-21. [DOI:10.1080/14767058.2017.1342805]
31. Adlan AS, Chooi KY, Mat Adenan NA. Acupressure as adjuvant treatment for the inpatient management of nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy: A double-blind randomized controlled trial. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research. 2017;43(4):662-668. [DOI:10.1111/jog.13269]
32. Morgan SR, Long L, Johns J, Angwin C, Maitra S, Ross JA. Are early pregnancy complications more common in women with hyperemesis gravidarum?. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2017;37(3): 355-357. [DOI:10.1080/01443615.2016.1256955]
33. Campbell K, Rowe H, Azzam H, Lane CA. The Management of Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada. 2016; 38 (12):1127-1137. [DOI:10.1016/j.jogc.2016.08.009]
34. Lima LL, Parente RC, Maestá I, Amim Junior J, de Rezende Filho JF, Montenegro CA, Clinical and radiological correlations in patients with gestational trophoblastic disease. Braga A. Radiol Bras. 2016; 49(4):241-250. [DOI:10.1590/0100-3984.2015.0073]
35. Kinomoto-Kondo S, Umehara N, Sato S, Ogawa K, Fujiwara T, Arata N, Sago H. The effects of gestational transient thyrotoxicosis on the perinatal outcomes: a case-control study.Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2017; 295(1):87-93. [DOI:10.1007/s00404-016-4219-2]
36. Sharp BR, Sharp KM, Patterson B, Dooley-Hash S. Treatment of Nausea and Vomiting in Pregnancy: Factors Associated with ED Revisits. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2016; 17(5):585-90. [DOI:10.5811/westjem.2016.6.29847]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Journal of Clinical and Basic Research

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0).